Ukhwahlukanisa “abantu” kumalungelo oluntu: ubukrelekrele noluntu olungadalwanga ngokwemvelo

Ukuphuhliswa bobukrelekrele noluntu olungadalwanga ngokwemvelo kwenza kubenzima uqonda ukuba kuthetha ukuthini ukuba ngumntu-kwaye ngubani (nokuba yintoni) "umntu" kumalungelo oluntu. 


By: A. Kayum Ahmed
April 10, 2019

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Izikhokelo zamalungelo oluntu zifakwe ngokugqithiseleyo kwintetho yokuba amalungelo ngamalungelo wabuntu. Nangona kunjalo, iimbono zezinto ezithathwa nje ngomntu zichithwa kuphuhliswa bobukrelekrele noluntu olungadalwanga ngokwemvelo, zombini zixhasa ukuvela kweentlobo ezintsha zabantu.

Izifundiswa eseziqalise ukuhlola lemibuzo zinentetho ethi ingaluncedo into yokuba amalungelo oluntu angabandakanya abantu abangomatshini kwaye isiBhengezo Sehlabathi Jikelele Samalungelo Oluntu sinokuthi sandiselwe kwabanye abantu abangomatshini. Nangona le mibono ibonakala iyigugu ekwakheni ingxoxo malunga ne-AI kunye namalungelo oluntu, imibuzo ethile ebalulekileyo ingaphendulwa.

Okokuqala, ngubani umntu kumalungelo oluntu? Ingxoxo ngoku zinengcinga zokuba sinokohlukanisa ngokulula phakathi komntu kunye nomntu ongengomntu. Nangona kunjalo, siqaphela ukuba oomatshini baguqukela ebuntwini, nabantu baxhomekeke komatshini.

Ngokomzekelo, i-AI ivuselele ingcamango "yoluntu olungadalwanga ngokwemvelo" – iqela elikholelwa kwinto yokuba kufuneka sisebenzise ubuchwepheshe be teknoloji ekulawuleni ukuguquka kwe mvelo.

Abantu “boluntu olungadalwanga ngokwemvelo” bafuna ukwandisa ubomi bungapheli ngobunjineli nobuchwephesha be teknoloji. Ngenxa yoko, njengokuba indalo yomntu iguquka isiya ekubeni ngumashini, umntu unokucinga ngophuhliso lwabantu abangomatshini abenziwe yinhlanganiselo yenyama, igazi kunye ne-microchips. Isiseko se-Cyborg sele siqukumbele umthetho wamalungelo we-Cyborgs oquka  "ukulingana kweziguquki" othi "isiguquki esivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni siya kufumana onke amalungelo, inzuzo kunye noxanduva olwenzelwe abantu bemvelo."

Ngeloxesha, ingcamango "yesiguquki esivunyiweyo ngokomthetho" iphakamisa umbuzo wesibini: ngubani na oyakuthatha isigqibo sokuba ngubani umntu kwaye ngubani ongengomntu? Lo mbuzo, oquka amandla okunika isimo (somthetho) somntu, kufuneka uqondwe kumxholo wembali wendlela umgangatho wabantu bokuqala owavela ngayo njengendlela yokucacisa phakathi kukaThixo, umntu kunye nesilwanyana. Ingcamango yomntu ngoko ihlala ingqongqo kwikoloniyali ejolise kumntu omhlophe, waseYurophu ongazange abandakanye abasetyhini, abantu abamnyama, abantu abagay kunye nabantu abakhubazekileyo kwabanye.

Ecaphula kumsebenzi kaSylvia Wynter wokwakhiwa komntu, uWalter Mignolo uthe uluhlu lwabantu oluye lwaphuhliswa ukuze kohlukaniswe phakathi "kwamaqela angaphantsi okanye angengobantu". uMignolo ubandakanyeka nombuzo obuza ukuba kuthetha ntoni ukubangumntu ukuze abonakalise ingcinga ezingayamanga kwi ngcinga zama koloneyali zibonakalisa ingcamango "yabantu" ukubonakalisa intsingiselo yayo lokwenyani. Emva kokuba intsingiselo yomntu ibonakalisiwe, uMignolo ufumanisa: "... Andifuni ukuba ngumntu. Kodwa endaweni yokugatya umxholo wayo kwaye wanezela nje isiqalo (emva kwenyama), abacingisi be-dekolonial baqala ngokubuza ukuba le miqondo yavela njani: nini, kutheni, kwaye ngoba? "

Ngenxa yoko, ukuba siyaqaphela uluhlu lomntu luyinkathazo enzulu ngenxa yokwakhiwa kwayo kwimbali, kunye nokungafaneleki ngokumalunga nexesha elizayo, ngoko kunokuba uzame ukwandisa uluhlu lwabantu, kunokusengqiqweni ukwahlula umntu kumalungelo oluntu. Ngokuqesha idekoloniality njengesikhokelo esifuna ukuxhamla kwimithombo ephezulu yolwazi lwase ntshona, "ukhetho lwe-dekoloniality" zingaphuhliswa ukubuyisela ukuqonda kwethu amalungelo oluntu. Le nkqubo, ngokutsho kukaTlostanova noMignolo, "ibeka ingxaki okanye iingxaki ekufuneka ziqwalaselwe (kwaye kungekho into okanye izinto ezifuneka zifundwe) ngaphambili". uTlostanova kunye noMignolo, bathi inqubo yokuphuhlisa inketho ye-dekolonial kufuneka ikhokhelwe "ngabadlali bezentlalo uFrantz Fanon athi zi 'les damnés de la terre' (1967); bonke abo bahlaziweyo, abangaxabisekanga, abangahoywangwa, neenkedama, kwaye nabajongene nezilonda le-kolonial ".

Ngenxa yoko, umnxeba ka u-Salil Shetty wokudekoloniza amalungelo oluntu kunye no-César Rodríguez-Garavito othi amalungelo oluntu adinga ukucingwa kunye nokuxhaswa ngamanye amacebo bobulungisa, asenza siqwalasele ukuba ingaba umntu kumalungelo oluntu ubambezela ikamva lweentetho zamalungelo. Ukwamukela indlela yokwenza i-dekolonial kunokuncedisa kwinkqubo yokukhumbula ukuba uRodriguez-Garavito unyanzeliswa ukuba sijamelane nokuphuhliswa kwezobuchwepheshe obufana ne-AI. Endaweni yokunciphisa iingcamango zethu kwiintetho esokola ukudibanisa abantu kunye noomatshini, mhlawumbi eli lixesha lokuhlukanisa umntu kumalungelo oluntu.

 

Translated by Lunga Siyo, an advocate at the Johannesburg Bar and co-founder of JustLaw.


uA. Kayum Ahmed ngumlawuli wecandelo loFikelelo noXanduva kwiNkqubo yeMpilo kaRhulumente (PHP) eNew York apho akhokhela umsebenzi wehlabathi we-PHP ekufikeleleni kumayeza kunye nobuchwepheshe. Ufundisa kwakhona iklasi kumalungelo eentlalo-qoqosho njengelungu lezakhono zobuncinane kwi-Columbia Law School. Ngaphambi kokufika e-OSF, uKayum wayeligosa eliphezulu elilawulayo kwisigqeba samalungelo oluntu aseMzantsi Afrika ukususela ngo-2010 ukuya ku-2015.


 

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