Impikiswano yobuchule sisaqhwithi esigqibeleyo - uMzantsi Afrika

Iinkundla zenze likhulu ekuphuculeni amalungelo oluntu eMzantsi Afrika nokukhuthaza ukulingana, kodwa ke akhonto imbi abanokuyenza kumphakathi onje ongalinganiyo.


By: Jason Brickhill
April 2, 2019

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Photo: I-TECH/Flickr


uMzantsi Afrika sesonasizwe esingalinganiyo kwihlabathi, ngokutsho kweNgxelo yeBhanki yeHlabathi. i-1% yabemi ilawula i-70% yobutyebi belizwe ngelixa i-60%  yabemi ilawula i-7% kuphela yobutyebi bayo. Ingaphezulu kwesigamu sabemi boMzantsi Afrika abaphila ngaphantsi komgaqo-ntlupheko we-R992 (malunga ne-US $70) ngenyanga, kwaye elinani linyukile ukususela ngo-2011. Awona maqela achaphazelekayo ngabantu abamnyama, abangasebenziyo, abangafundanga, imizi elawulwa ngabafazi, iintsapho ezinkulu kunye nabantwana.

Ngexesha elifanayo, ngamazwi kaCass Sunstein, kuthiwa umgaqosiseko wase Mzantsi Afrika, "... ngowona uncomekayo kwiimbali zehlabathi", kwaye neenkundla zikulungele ukucinga iindlela zokudala ukuyinyanzelisa. Ubuchule bokuxoxa amatyala lusetyenzisiwe ziintlangano zo luntu njengecwangciso eyodwa lokulandela ubulungisa boluntu. Kodwa kuthetha ukuthini ukulandelela ubulungisa kuluntu apho ezi zinto zimbini ziyinyani, ukuba kusebenze amandla amakhulu omgaqo siseko kwilwandle lobuhlwempu kunye nokophulwa kwamalungelo wabantu?

uMzantsi Afrika namhlanje sisaqhwithi esigqibeleleyo sempikiswano yobuchule: inkqubo yomthetho enika isikhokelo sempikiswano, kunye neemeko zobomi ebantwini abaninzi ezidala iingxabano kunye neemfuno eziba ngamatyala amakhulu.

Umgaqo-siseko ka-1996 waguqula umthetho wenkqubo kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo ngeendlela eyenza kubekho impikiswano yobuchule. Ngokwenkqubo, inkundla zinikwe amandla abanzi okuvumela amatyala omphakathi kunye namatyala wamaqela athile omphakathi, kunye namandla okulungisa aguquguqukayo. Iinkundla ziye zasebenzisa la magunya zaququzelela ukufikeleleka kwenkundla kunye nokuthatha izigqibo ezichaphazela umphakathi. Bayitshintshile imithetho engekho semthethweni. Iinkundla zenze umgaqo ochasa iindleko ematyaleni abandakanya uMgaqo-siseko. Utshintsho lukhulu,  lubandakanya uMthetho wamalungelo kunye nomgaqo othembekileyo wokuthobela umthetho (uvela kumgaqo womthetho).

Esi sikhokelo sabekwa kwilizwe elivela kwiminyaka yengquzulwano kumzabalazo wenkululeko nokulwa ubandlululo kunye nokulawulwa njenge koloni. UmGaqo-siseko - ngokungafani neminye imigaqo-siseko ajongisene ekugcineni ukuzinza nokunciphisa amandla karhulumente ukwenzela akhuseleka amalungelo wabuntu – ubonakalisa imfuneko yokuguqulwa kwenkqubo yoluntu. Abantu abamnyama, abafazi, abantu abahlala kwimimandla yasemaphandleni, abantu abaphila nokukhubazeka kunye ne LGBTQ basacinezelwa kwiindawo zoluntu. Kwaye ukufezekiswa ko lawulo lwesinintsi ngo-1994, uMzantsi Afrika wazuza ingqokelela yemithetho ne neenkqubo ezinocalucalulo. uMgaqo-siseko ubhalelwe ukuyilwa nokuyiqhekeza lo mithetho ne neenkqubo ezinocalucalulo.

Impikiswano yobuchule isetyenziswa njengesicwangciso esisodwa sokutshintsha ezenhlalo. Kwiminyaka ayi-25 yoMgaqo-siseko, iinkundla ziye zagqiba amakhulu kumatyala anjalo. Iinkundla ziphelise isigwebo sokufa; zikhusele kwaye zaqinisa amalungelo e-LGBTQ kuquka ukulingana komtshato; kunye nokunyanzeliswa kwamalungelo ezoqoqosho nezentlalo kwizindlu, impilo, amanzi kunye nemfundo. KwiSigqibo esaziwayo kwityala le Treatment Action Campaign, iNkundla yoMgaqo-siseko yanyanzela urhulumente ukuba asebenzise iyeza lokukhusela ukudluliselwa kwentsholongwane kaGawulayo phakathi ko mama no mntana, esosigqibo sanceda ekupheliseni ixesha elibi eMzantsi Afrika ekulweni noGawulayo. Namhlanje, uMzantsi Afrika uneyona nqubo enkulu kwihlabathi lonke lonyango lwentsholongwane kaGawulayo jikelele.

Kutshanje, kwezemfundo, inkundla ziye zanyanzela urhulumente aphelise izikolo ezininzi zodaka ezingakhuselekanga, lonto ziyenzele ukuqinisekisa ukuba zonke iziseko zezikolo zikhuselekile kwaye zanele. Eminye imizekelo iquka uqeqesho lootitshala, iincwadi zezifundo, ifenitshala yesikolo kunye nokubonelela izithuthi kubantwana bezikolo zasemaphandleni ukuba bahambe umgama omde. Ukufikeleleka koMthetho wamaLungelo kuye kwandiselwa kubadlali abazimeleyo. Ukujongana nelifa lokuxhatshazwa kwabasebenzi bamashishini abamnyama, inkundla iqinisekise inxaxheba kwinqanaba labasebenzi base-migodini kunye nesifo se-silicosis, malunga neenkampani ezingama-32 ezibandakanyekayo ngokuchanekileyo yonke iqumrhu lezemigodi yegolide - yagqibela kwi mvumelwano yezi gidi ngezi gidi zeRandi. Le mizekelo, kunye namanye amaninzi amatyala afana nawo, athathwe yimibutho yoluntu, ngakumbi imibutho yoluntu azibandakanya kwezomthetho.

Ekuqiniseni umgaqo womthetho, iinkundla zenze into enokuba yinto engacingwayo kumazwe amaninzi - ngokugqithiseleyo isuswe kwi-ofisi intloko yokutshutshiswa koluntu, intloko yosasaza esidlangalaleni, intloko yolwaphulo-mthetho, kwaye enye intloko yokutshutshiswa koluntu, kwaye yanyanzela uMongameli ukuba abuyisele izigidi kwimali kawonkewonke esetyenziselwe ukuphucula ikhaya lakhe. Lamatyala aziswe ngokubanzi ngamaqela aphikisayo (ekunene kunye nase khohlwa kuka Rhulumente) kunye nemibutho yoluntu. Abaninzi babona iinkundla zidlale indima ebalulekileyo ekunqandeni uMongameli wangaphambili uZuma kunye noosapho elityebileyo iGupta’s ukuba babambe ilizwe kwaye baququzelele ukuphangwa kwemithombo yoluntu.

Kodwa kukho, ngokufanelekileyo, ukungonwabi ngenqanaba elincinci lokutshintsha kunye nokungalingani kwe ntlanga nesini. Nangona uzuko oluphawulekayo kwiinkundla lunokubonakala ngathi lichaphaza elwandle. Oku kuye kwabangela ukuba abanye bagxeke uMgaqo-siseko kunye neenkundla ngenqanaba elincinci lokutshintsha, xa izithintelo zokwenyani zihambelana neengxaki zenkqubo kwinkqubo yokunikezelwa kweenkonzo ngoxhatshazo lwaseburhulumenteni kunye nolwabucala, bonke kumxholo welifa lobandlululo.

Ezi ngxaki zixutywe yinto yokuba ukuphumeza ubulungisa bentlalo ngamatyala kunemida yayo ngenxa yobume benkqubo yomthetho kunye namandla enkundla. Ngokomzekelo, ngelixa iinkundla zizimisele ukunyanzelisa imisebenzi efanelekileyo efuna urhulumente ukuba anikeze ngamayeza okukhusela ukudluliselwa kwentsholongwane kaGawulayo kunye nezibonelelo ezikolweni, abazange bazimisele ukubeka ngokwenene ukubonelela izindlu, amanzi nokudala imisebenzi. Lamatyala agqamisa imida ye impikiswano yobuchule ukulinganiselwa emaxesheni athile.

Impikiswano yobuchule sisixhobo esinamandla kakhulu ekutshintsheni kwentlalo eMzantsi Afrika. Kuye kubalulekile ekulungiseni ezinye izinto eziphambili zomgaqo-nkqubo, ukukhusela izithintelo eziyimfuneko, ukulwa nenkohlakalo, ukujova ukukhawuleza nokunyanzelisa urhulumente ukubeka phambili amaqela athatywayo. Kodwa kukho imingcele yangempela kwizinto ezingalindelwe ukuphumeza. Imigango ingaba yinto enye ebalulekileyo, kodwa akuyiyo inkundla kuphela ukuqonda umgaqo-siseko. UMgaqo-siseko usasaza lo mthwalo kwiinkqubo ngokufanelekileyo ngokuchanekileyo kurhulumente osebenzisanayo, ukwabelana ngesigqeba sokulawula kunye nomthetho phakathi kwamacandelo kazwelonke, amaphondo kunye nendawo. Ukwakha uluntu oluninzi lulo msebenzi kuwo onke amashishini karhulumente, uluntu loluntu kunye nezotshintsho zisebenzisa zonke iindlela ezitholakalayo kubo.

 

Translated by Lunga Siyo, an advocate at the Johannesburg Bar and co-founder of JustLaw.

 


uJason Brickhill ungumfundisi kumalungelo oluntu kwiYunivesithi yaseOxford, kunye noMlawuli woPhando wesigqeba samalungelo oluntu kwiYunivesithi yaseOxford. Ebeligqwetha  lamalungelo oluntu eLegal Resources Centre eMzantsi Afrika ukususela ngo 2008-2016, kwaye ungumhleli wencwadi yakutshanje enesihloko esithi “Public Interest Litigation in South Africa” (iJuta, ngo-2018).


 

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