Ubumbano-buzwe obugxile kubudlelwane yisisekelo sezivikelo zamalungelo ezijulile kepha ezingacacile kahle

Empeleni, akekho othokozela “amalungelo abantu asezingeni lomhlaba.” Ezimpilweni zethu kulowo nalowo, wonke amalungelo asezingeni lendawo futhi eliphathelene nesiqu somuntu.



 

Amalungelo abantu avinjwe udweshu olunzima. Ngasohlangothini olulodwa, emnyombeni wawo, angumqondo okhululayo ohlose ukumelana nombuso wezwe, ukwamukela ubuntu obabelwene emhlabeni jikelele, kanye nokuvikela amalungelo alabo abasencupheni yokungazuzi ezihlangwini zombuso, zomnotho kanye nezethonya. Ngamazwi esishoshovu waseNingizimu Afrika owayayebambe iqhaza ocwaningweni lwami, angasebenza “njengomlinganisi” ogunyaza labo “abantulayo” ukuthi “benze izimfuno emphakathini eziwuhlobo olufanayo nalezo ezingadingi ukwenziwa yilabo abanamandla amaningi kanye nomnotho.” 

 

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, lezi zikhungo esivamise ukuzisebenzisa ukuhlela kanye nokufeza amalungelo abantu zixhunywe ngaphakathi kwezinqubo ezigxile kwezomthetho kanye nezombuso, ngezinye izinkathi zigxekwa ngokuthi zivuna isikompilo elithize, futhi zibonakalisa izici zalo mhlaba ongalingani esiphila kuwo. 

 

Ubumbano-buzwe bubhekene nezinselelo ezifanayo. Umqondo wobumbano kanye nobulungu obudlula umbuso wesizwe uyakhulula futhi uthembisa okungcono, usibizela ekutheni samukele ubuntu bethu obabelwene nokuthi sinqobe udweshu olubangwa ngubuzwe. Kepha lo mqondo “wokunqoba” izibopho zobuzwe ukuze ukhethe “ukuba isakhamuzi somhlaba wonke” uvamise ukususelwa emqondweni wobuhlobo obukhona vele futhi nokuba novo kuhulumeni. Njengezinye izinhlobo zezinhlelo zamalungelo abantu eziphakeme, ubumbano-buzwe kumbe “ukuxhumana koxhaxha lwamazwe ngamazwe” bungaba yizwi emhlabeni jikelele elinomkhawulo kulabo abaphezulu abaxhumene. Impela kukhona abaphika ngokuthi umhlaba “uyimibhoshongo” hhayi “isicaba”, ngenxa yokuthi umehluko phakathi kwezizinda zamazwe jikelele ubaluleke ngaphansi kunalowo phakathi kwezinhlokodolobha kanye nemiphakhathi esemaphandleni ezweni elilodwa. 

 

Ngakho ke, imigomo yobunye bomhlaba namaphupho abelenwe ingaphambana icindezele kunokuthi ikhulule. Ingaphindaphinda futhi iqinise ukungalingani. Ingazwakala njengokuthweswa kwemicabango namasiko aziba izimo zendawo kanye nezincazelo ezijulile ezigxile kumongo. Empeleni, akekho othokozela “amalungelo abantu emhlabeni jikelele.” Ezimpilweni zethu ngazinye, wonke amalungelo awendawo futhi aphathelene nesiqu somuntu. Ngamazwi ka-Eleanor Roosevelt amalungelo abantu “aqala […] ezindaweni eziphansi, eziseduze nekhaya” futhi “uma la malungelo engabalulekile kulezo ndawo, awabalulekile ndawo.” Yikula makhosomba ezimpilo zethu – lezi zindawo ezijulile zobudlelwane phakathi kwabantu, ukuxhumana kwansuku zonke nezinhlelo zombuso, kanye nezenzo nezibonakaliso eziveza isithunzi, ukuzazisa namasiko lapho amalungelo abantu enza umqondo ngezindlela eziphathekayo. 

 

Engabe labo abanendima emazingeni angaphansi kombuso bangakwazi yini ukuphithanisa ngendlela ebambekayo indlela esicabanga nesigcina ngayo amalungelo abantu kanye nobumbano-buzwe? Uma siqonda inhloso nomthelela wamalungelo abantu njengento yasendaweni ngokwemvelo, kwenza umqondo ukuthi ukubuka kwethu kugxile endaweni uma kuphathelene nalabo abadlala indima kumalungelo abantu futhi ngokunjalo ukushintsha izindlela esicabanga ngazo ukuxhumana kwamazwe jikelele. 

 

Emsebenzini wami ngigxila ezinhlanganweni ezingekho ngaphansi kukahulumeni (amaNGO) ezigxile ekuthuthukisweni kwemiphakathi emkhakheni wezamalungelo ikakhulukazi e-Afrika eseNingizimu. Umsebenzi wami ukhombisa ukuthi lezi zinhlangano ziphethe ubuhlakani obusemqoka hhayi nje kuphela emsebenzini wamalungelo abantu osemazingeni aphansi, okuyiwona oyisisekelo somsebenzi wazo, kepha nasekubeni negalelo ngokomqondo ekutheni sicabanga kanjani ngamalungelo abantu. 

 

Phambilini ngike ngabhala ngokuthi “ngukwakha kunokuconsisela” nokuthi ukuqaphela izindlela amaNGO asezingeni lezwe noma asezingeni lendawo awachasisela futhi awachaza ngayo amalugelo abantu kungasiza ukukhuthaza ingxoxo ngamalungelo abantu, kuyixhumanise nezinhlobo zokugunyazwa zasendaweni, futhi kuveze ukubaluleka enako ezimpilweni zabantu basendaweni. Lokhu kugxila kungasiza ukusiqhelelanisa nobumbaxambili obuyisidala bobuhlobolunye obungenamehluko buphikisana namasiko anomahluko, kugqamise izindlela umbono wendawo ophinde ugxile emasikweni ungakhuthaza kunokunqanda ukuvikelwa kwamalungelo abantu. 

 

Singazuza futhi singafunda kanjani kwizinchazelo zamalungelo abantu ezigxilile, zasendaweni ngenkathi sikhuthaza ukuxhumana okwabelwene kanye nokuhloniphana okudlula ukwahlukaniswa ngobuzwe? Amalungelo abantu angubuhlobo. Inkolelo yase-Africa eseNingizimu yobuntu/botho, enokuqondwa ngezinye izishoshovu njengendlela yokubonakalisa amalungelo abantu yesifunda, ivamise ukuchazwa ngesisho esithi “motho ke motho ka batho” (Setswana) esitolikwa ngokuthi “umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu.” Ingumqondo nokwenza yokudala, yokubonisa, nokwamukela ubuntu bethu ngothintana nabanye. Ubumbano-buzwe obugxile ekuxhumaneni kwabantu bunamandla/inamandla ncamashi ngenxa yezindawo eziphansi futhi zabantu esibakhela phezu kwayo. 

 

Ukuxhumana okunje kungasiza ukuxosha ukuqondisisa ngokwesi-Euro-American obucashe enkulumeni yobuhlobolunye futhi kwembule imisuka eyahlukahlukene ngokwamasiko wamalungelo abantu, njengokuphikisa kuka-Ibhawoh kanye nabanye. Ukwamukela imisuka ehlukahlukene yamalungelo abantu kubandakanya ukubona ububanzi obungaphezulu bezinhlobonhlobo zalabo abadlala indima njengabadali kanye nabakhiqizi bemigomo yamalungelo abantu, kunokuba abamukeli ababekezelayo/abathuli bezinkolelo ezisabalele “zomhlaba/zasemhlabeni jikelele”. Lokhu kubona/kuqaphela kungaba ingxenye esemqoka yokwakha umphakathi ngaphesheya kwemingcele kanye nokukhuthaza, njengokuphawula kukaShenker-Osorio, u-“thina” obanzi ngokwedlulele

 

Izinhlangano zendawo ezingekho ngaphansi kwahulumeni zivamise okuhlangana ngenxa yezindaba ezingenaye ummeli kanye nezidingo ezingafeziwe. Emsebenzini wami wokusebenzisana namaNGO abhekene nezimo zesandulela-ngculaza, amalungelo eLGBTI, kanye nomsebenzi wocansi, ngibonile ukuthi izinhlangano zalolu hlobo zibahlanganisa kanjani abantu nokuthi ziwakhuphula kanjani amazwi abantu abaxhumene ngezimpilo abaziphilayo abavamise ukungabikho noma abanganakwa kwizithangami zikazwelonke. Ukwahlukaniswa ezingeni likazwelonke kungalanyulwa ukuxhumana okusezingeni lomhlaba – hhayi nje nezikhungo  zeNhlangano yeziZwe kuphela lapho izinkathazo zabo zingaphinda futhi zigudluzelwe eceleni – kepha nezinye isinhlangano ezisemazingeni aphansi ezingamele abantu abasezimeni ezifanayo. 

 

Izinhlangano zokuxhumana ezingenayo imigomo eqinile zingathuthuka phakathi kwezinhlangano zomphathi ezinwebekayo kunyuke amazwi angazwiwa ngokwanele ezingxoxweni zikazwelonke kuhle kweBlack Lives Matter eMelika (nakwezinye izindawo), i-Idle No More yaseCanada, i-#FeesMustFall yaseNingizimu Afrika, kanye namaWomen’s Marches emhlabeni jikelele. Izinhlangano ezinqamula amazwe zingalekelela ngoxhaso, ukwabelwana ngolwazi kanye nobumbano olunenjongo. Lapho ukubamba iqhaza kulingana lezi zinhlangano zokuxhumana zalolu hlobo zingalekelela ukuhloniphana okuphikisana nesimo somhlaba kuphinde kuxoshe imibono ehluzwe ngezibuko zobuzwe.  

 

Lezi ziphakamiso yiziphakamiso-nje kunokuba yiziqinisekiso futhi akukona ukuthi azinazo izingqinamba. Ukwazisa ukwahlukahluka kwemibono ngamalungelo abantu, imisuka kanye nobuchwepheshe kuphithanisa ukuvumelana. Kuphoqa ukuxhumana okubanzi, ukuxoxisana kanye nokubonisana. La masiko nawo angezombusazwe ngokunjalo nazo zonke izingxenye zawo – izilimi, indawo, izinkundla ezidijithali, kanye nenhloso yawo. Ukwazisa amalungelo abantu esizindeni kudinga ukwamukela okungemnandi, njengokuqaphela kuka-Goodhart,  ukuthi inhloso yamalungelo abantu akusiko ukuthokozisa wonke umuntu. Izihlabelelo zobumbano zika “sisonke” akumele zifihle izimo ezingalingani. 

 

Ngisho nezishoshovu zamalungelo abantu imbala “aziphili esikhaleni esingenazo ezombusazwe lapho abantu bephathwa ngokulingana.” AmaNGO awekho bucayi ngokungaphansi kuneminye imikhakha yomphakathi. Uxhaxha lwamaNGO amalungelo abantu angaba nokungalingani, ebonisa ukungalingani komcebo, izinhlelo ezingasebenzi, incindezi yezombusazwe, kanye nokwengamela okungaphelele. Ngale kwalokhu, imiphakathi kungenzeka ukuthi ingabi sendaweni eyodwa, yize noma izinhlelo zokwengamela nokuqonda kuka “ndaweni” ziyaqhubeka nokuba njalo. 

 

Ingakwazi yini ubumbano-buzwe bobudlelwane ukukhangisa amalungelo abantu kuphinde kuxoshe ukwesaba abezizwe? Nakanjani. Kepha kuzothatha isikhathi, kuphithizele, futhi kube nokungabi nesiqiniseko. Kuzophoqa ukuthi sizinikele ngokweqile futhi kuzodinga ukuthi samukele izimemo siphinde simeme abanye “ezindaweni eziphansi eziseduze nekhaya” lapho amalungelo abantu esemqoka khona.

 

ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED: October 5, 2020

UKristi Heather Kenyon unguSolwazi eGlobal College ezinze eNyuvesi yaseWinnipeg, ungumcwaningi (phecelezi i-research fellow) eCentre for the Study of Security and Development futhi uyiCIFAR-AZIRELI Scholar.


 

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