Go neela tiriso ya puo ya ditshwanelo dithata ke gone go bakang kgolo ya tiriso ya puo e mo go bueleleng HIV

Babueledi ba HIV ba mo gae ba simoletse go dirisa puo ya ditshwanelo tsa setho le fa ba buelela tsa botsogo, segolobogolo ka gore ba dumela gore seabe sa puo ya ditshwanelo se maatla, eseng gore ba solofela dingwe diphetogo tsa semolao. 


By: Kristi Heather Kenyon
January 8, 2018

Available in:
English | Setswana | Zulu


HIV ke bolwetse jo bo sitang e bile jaanong bo pateletsa mekgato e e ikemetseng ka nosi gore e tle ka metlhale e mesha gore e kgone go itepatepanya le dikgwelho. Babueledi ba jaanong ba dirile mo gotweng dilo makwati ka go adima puo le bothegeniki kwa mafapheng le mafelo a a buelelang ka lentswe le le utlwalang, a aname e bile a dirisa metlhale e e faphegileng go buelela botsogo. Babueledi ba HIV ke bone ba gogang kwa pele mo katlolosong ya pueledi ya HIV go tsena mo pueleding ya tsa botsogo, ba remelela thata mo ditshwanelong eseng mo dilong tse di tlwaelesegileng tse di tshwanang le tlhabololo kgotsa botsogo jwa sechaba, go sa kgatlhelesege gore aa ke mo diemong tse eleng gore ditshwanelo di tlhaloganyesega ele dilo tse di tswang gosele e bile di baka tlhakatlhanyo kgotsa jang.

Mo bukeng e ke sa tswang go e kwala , ke itebaganya le Aferika wa sub-Sahara, eleng lefelo le le amilweng thata ke HIV, mme ke botsa gore: ke eng makgotla a a dirang le HIV a tlhalosa dikgang tsa one a dirisa puo ya ditshwanelo tsa setho? Tlhopo e ya bone ba e tlhaloganya jang? Ba akanya seabe sa yone e tla nna se se kae? Karabo ya potso e e ka nna ya hakgamatsa bangwe: tshwetso ya go dirisa ditshwanelo e tlhotlheleditswe ke tumelo ya motho eseng gore ke se seneng se lopiwa ke barotloetsi, e bile ntleng le seabe se se ka nnang teng, ka fa semolaong, ke bomosola jwa go bua ka ditshwanelo tsa motho jo babueledi ba boneng bo le botlhokwa.

Ke sekasekile mekgatlo e e ikemetseng ka nosi ele boferabongwe go tsweng mo mafatsheng a le mane (Ghana, Uganda, Aferika Borwa, Botswana) mo dikarolong tse tharo tsa kgalo ya Aferika sub-Sahara (Bophirima jwa Aferika, Botlhaba jwa Aferika, Borwa jwa Aferika). Kanamo ya mafatshe a e supa makgotla a a ikemetseng ka nosi a a berekelang mo diemong tse di farologanyeng, le mo ditekanyetsong tse di farologanyeng (mo dikgaolong, lefatsheng, mafelo). Go dira tshwantshanyo e tsamaelane, ke tlhopile makgotla a a farologanngwang ke kafa a dirisang ditshwanelo tsa setho ka teng mo puelelong. Ditshekatsheko tse di ikaegile ka dipotsoloso tse 145 tse di tseneletseng tse ke di dirileng le mekgatlo e, le e mengwe e e amanang le tiro ya yone, le go dira dipatlisiso tse di maleba mo ditirong, dipampiri le dipolokelo tsa bobegadikgang.

Le sebakeng sa dingwaga di feta masome a mabedi, barotloetsi ka madi ntse ba galaletsa thulaganyo ya ditshwanelo tsa setho. Tota lefa patlisiso yame e sa ganane le botlhokwa jwa barotloetsi ba ba anameng le lefatshe ka bophara, mme e bontsha gore ditopo tsa morotloetsi di ne di sa rotloetse maitlhopelo a mokgatlo a go dirisa leano la ditshwanelo tsa setho mo go kalokalo. Ditlhopha tse di neng di ammanngwa thata le leano le ga di aka tsa latlhegelwa ke kgatlhego fa di simolola go sa nna bommamoratwa ba barotloetsi, e bile kgatlhego e ene ya seka ya latlhegelwa kgotsa ya oketsegelwa ke serodumo fa thotloetso e fetoga. Mekgatlo e mennye le e metona mo puelelong ya ditshwanelo tsa setho e arologana baroetloetsi. Gape ditlhopha ka bontsi di nale barotloetsi ba le mokawana, mme e bile barotloetsi ba nako e ntsi, ba rotloetsa dingwe ditiro tsa mokgatlo eseng mokgatlo ka bo one. Morotloetsi yo esi ga se gantsi a ka laolela mokgatlo gore o ka tlhopha mofuta ofe wa pueledi. 

Mme fela, kgang yame ke gore mekgatlo e tlhopha ditshwanelo tsa setho segolobogolo ka ntlha ya mabaka a a amanang le mokgatlho ka bo one, mme se se bontsha tlhakano ya dintlha tse di utlwalang e bile di le mo tsamaisong. Tse di tshwanetseng go nna teng go dira gore mokgatlo o kgone go tlhopa thulaganyo ya tiriso ya puo ya ditshwanelo di akaretsa go nna teng ga moeteledipele yo o itseng ka ditshwanelo tsa setho, mme eleng gore ditshwanelo ga se dilo tse di tlhagelelang thata mo mananeong a sechaba, mme fela di nne penagare ya thulaganyo e e letlang kamano ya babereki kgapetsakgapetsa. Mo diemong tse eleng gore ditshwanelo tsa setho ga go buiwe ka tsone thata, ditlhopha di kgona go tswelelela pele fela ka gore di nale “bagaka ba ditshwanelo” ba ba nonofileng. Baeteledipele ba go nna jalo ba kgona go sireletsa ngwao ya ditshwanelo mo makgotleng., mme kwa phelelong ba kgone go ngoka badiri ba ba nang, kgotsa ba ba tlang kgatlhegelang go tshwana le baeteledipele ba bone.

Mo ditlhopheng tse di dirisitseng pueledi ya ditshwanelo tsa setho thata, go ne go supagala gore mongwe o dumela thata mo thulaganyong e. batsayakarolo mo potsolotsong le bone ga ntsi ba ne ba tlhalosa tiriso ya bone ya puo ya ditshwanelo tsa setho go ya ka se ba se dumelang-mme gantsigantsi ba fa dikarabo tse di telele e bile di tswa mo boteng jwa dipelo tsa bone ba tlhalosa fa ditshwanelo tsa setho ele pinagare ya serite le bokao jwa bone. Mongwe wa batsayakarolo ba potsolotso o tlhalositse tiriso ya ditshwanelo tsa setho ka lekgotla la gagwe jaana:

Fa di tlotlwa jaana ditshwanelo tsa setho, ga go sepe se se palang. Akere re tshela ka ntlha ya ditshwanelo tsa setho? ….. Go sa kgatlheledege gore ga di utlwalesege go le kae, mme fela o na le ditshwanelo tsa setho tse di tshwanetseng go tlotlwa. Batho ga ba tshwanela go go gataka. Serite sa gago ke yone toro ya gago ……Ka gore serite ke sone tshwanelo ya setho. Go tla le go tshela ga gago ole motho. Ga di seyo, o ile go tsewa o se sepe.

Go nale go tsewa jaaka setlhogo kgotsa leano, ditshwanelo di ne di tlhaloganngwa ele selo se se anameng le lefatshe ka bophara mme di itshegeditse ka tumelo e e nonofileng- e e ka nnang ya tshwantshanngwa le tumelo ya semodimo.

Ke ne ke solofetse gore ditlhopha di tla tlhopha ditshwanelo pele ga mafoko a a dirisiwang ka gore ditshwanelo di gokaganye le tirigatso ya molao ka mokgwa o eleng gore ditlhabololo le botsogo jwa sechaba tsone ga di jalo. Kene ke akantse gore gongwe go tlhopha ditshwanelo tsa setho go ne go itsetsepeletse mo tsholofelong ya go tsiboga ga puso le boikarabelo jwa semolao. Mme fela ka maswabi, batsayakarolo mo potsolotsong ba bonye botlhokwa bogolo jwa ditshwanelo tsa setho ele go fa motho dithata fa a setse a tlhoka thuso ya bongaka. Ba bonye ditshwanelo ele thulaganyo e e fang bao ba ba tshelang le HIV dithata tsa go lopa ditirelo tse di ba lebaganyeng, le go tsenya dikopo ba le mo maemong a a nang le dithata e bile go le maleba, eseng fela go kopa mo go bokoa e bile ka boitlhobogo.

Mongwe wa batsayakarolo mo potsolotsong o tlhalositse phetogo maikutlo e, e areng e patile thulaganyo ya pueledi ka ditshwanelo tsa setho, “mo ditlhaloganyong tsa batho” e tsisa mogopolo wa gore “ba na le tshwanelo ya go lopa tse di botoka.” Batsayakarolo ba nankotse ditopo tse: “Fa o re, ‘Ke tshwanelo yame ya semolao, ngaka. Ga ke tswe fa ke sa alafiwa,’ ka jalo ngaka o tla tlhomamisa gore o bona kalafi […] Ba ka se dire phoso.”.

Le fa nopolo e e dirisitsweng fa godimo e tswa kwa Aferika Borwa, kwa eleng gore ditshwanelo tsa botsogo di akareditswe mo Molaong Motheo, batsayakarolo mo potsolotsong go tswa kwa mafelong a mangwe kwa eleng gore se ga se mo molaong le bone kgang ba e bona fela jaana. Ba bone puo ya ditshwanelo ele selo se se fetolang batho go tsweng mo go nneng baamogedi fela ba tlhokomelo go nna batsayakarolo ba ba bonalang e bile ban ale seabe mo botsogong jwa bone, mme e bile ka go nne ba tsenya letsogo ba na le tshwanelo ya go lopa ditirelo mo pusong.

Patlisisiso e e bontsha gore “ditshwanelo tsa setho” di ka ntsha dipoelo tse di nang le seabe se se botlhokwa mo mafelomg a eleng gore baithuti ka ditshwanelo ga segantsi ba tsenya leitlho mo go one. Mo godimo ga ditiro tse di dirwang ke puso le mafelo a maemo a a kwa godimo jaaka Lekgotla la Dichabachaba le makgotla tshekelo, batho ba tshegeditse ditshwanelo tsa setho mo ditirisanyong tsa bone tsa letsatsi le letsatsi ka ditsela tse di ka rotloetsang matshelo a bone mo go siameng. Patlisisiso e e akanya gore pueledi ya ditshwanelo tsa setho e ama ka tsela e e pharologanyo ka gore e fetola ka fa motho a lebang ka teng dithatamabapi le puso le go letlelela batho go lopa ditirelo ba le mo maemong a a nang le thata. Bao ba ba itseng ka pueledi ya ditshwanelo tsa setho go kaiwa ele bone ka yang go lopa ditirelo tsa tlhokomelo ya botsogo, go itsesiwe ka ditshwanelo tsa bone, go botsa dipotso ka batlisi ba ditirelo tsa tlhokomelo ya botsogo, go ntsha dingongorego ka tiego kgotsa itlhokomoloso ya ditirelo.

Tse di lemogilweng ke patlisiso e di ka nna le seabe mo botsogong jwa sechaba, ka gore ka fa go begwang ka teng gore ditshwanelo tsa setho di ka fetola boitshwaro go tlisa mogopolo wa gore twelo ditshwanelo go remeletswe mo ditshwanelong tsa setho e ka tswa ele selaodi se se siameng mme se itlhokomolositswe.


Kristi Heather Kenyon ke mothusa porofesa kwa Unibesiting ya Winnipeg’s Global College, mmatlisisi kwa Centre for the Study of Security and Development, e bile gape ke Moithuti wa CIFAR-Azrieli Global.


 

Kago kgotsa kgatako: Ditshwanelo tsa setho mo Borwa jwa Aferika

BY: Kristi Heather Kenyon
English | Español | Zulu

 

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