Ulimi oluqhakambisayo lwamalungelo luyisisekelo esiya ngokwanda ekumelaneni nesifo seSandulela-Ngculazi.

Izishoshovu ezimelana nesifo seSandulela-Ngculazi emazingeni aphansi zisabalalisela ingxoxo ngamalungelo abantu ekuqwashiseni nasekumeleni kwezempilo, ikakhulukazi ngenxa yokuthembela kumthelela okhuthazayo wolwimi lamalungelo, hhayi ekulindeleni izinguquko kwezomthetho.


By: Kristi Heather Kenyon
January 4, 2018

Available in:
English | Setswana


Isifo seSandulela-Ngculazi yigosa lobhubhane olungakaze lubonakale oluphoqa izinhlangano zemiphakathi ukusungula kabusha izindlela zokubhekana nezinselela. Lezi zishoshovu zaboleka ulimi lokummela kanye nobuchwepheshe obuvela kweminye imikhakha kanye nakwezinye izindawo, la masu bawasebenzisele ukumela kwezempilo ngendlela enomsindo, esabalele kanti futhi esungulwe kabusha kakhulu kunakuqala. Izishoshovu zeSandulela-Ngculazi yizinqalubutho zokusatshalaliswa kwengxoxo yamalungelo abantu ekumeleni kwezempilo, basebenzisa amalungelo esikhundleni sezindlela ezivamile kakhulu ezifana nezentuthuko noma ezempilo yomphakathi, nasezindaweni lapho amalungelo eyinto engajwayelekile futhi evusa ulaka.

Encwadini yami esanda kushicilelwa ngigxila esifundeni se-Afrika esingezansi kweSahara, lena ingxenye yomhlaba echaphazeleke kakhulu ngalo bhubhane, bese ngibuza: kungani izinhlangano zemiphakathi ezimelayo ezisebenza ngesifo seSandulela-Ngculazi zikhetha ukuqhakambisa injongo yazo ngolimi lamalungelo abantu? Bakuqonda kanjani lokhu kukhetha? Bakubona kunamuphi umthelela? Izimpendulo zingabamangaza abanye: isinqumo sokusebenzisa amalungelo sigqugquzelwa yinkolelo yomuntu ngamunye hhayi yimpoqo yabanikelayo futhi ngale kwalokhu, kungaphansi kwemithelela yazo kwezemithetho, kwaba ukukhuthazwa komuntu ngamunye yinkulumo yamalungelo okwazwiwa yizishoshovu njengemithelela esemqoka.

Ngahlola izinhlangano zemiphakathi eziyisishiyagalolunye ezidabuka emazweni amane (eGhana, eYuganda, eNingizimu Afrika, naseBotswana) asezifundeni ezintathu ze-Afrika engezansi kweSahara (eNtshonalanga Afrika, eMpumalanga Afrika, ne-Afrika eseNingizimu). Ububanzi lobu bunikeza isithombe sezinhlangano zemiphakathi ezisebenza ezimweni ezahlukene, emazingeni ahlukene (emiphakathini, kuzwelonke, nasezingxenyeni zezwekazi). Ukuze kube nokuqhathanisa ngendlela ehlelekile, ngikhethe izinhlangano ezehlukile ekusebenziseni kwazo amalungelo abantu ekumeleni abantu. Lolu cwaningo (lohlobo lwe-case study) luhoshe ulwazi ezingxoxweni ezingu-145 ezingahlelekile ngokuphelele ebezibandakanya lezi zinhlangano, kanye nezinye izinhlangano ezixhumene nomsebenzi wazo, futhi lunokuphenya izehlakalo ezinqala, imibhalo kanye nemibiko yabezindaba.

Kule minyaka engamashumi amabili edlule abaxhasi abaningi babungaze uhlelo lamalungelo abantu. Yize-ke ucwaningo lwami lungakuphikisi ukubaluleka kwabaxhasi basemazweni, luthole ukuthi imibandela yalaba baxhasi ayizange ibe nomthelela ezinqumeni ezithathwe yizinhlangano ukusebenzisa uhlelo lokummela olugxile kumalungelo abantu. Izinhlangano ezixhumene kakhulu nalolu hlelo azizange ziphelwe wumdlandla ngenkathi zehlelwa wudumo kubaxhasi, futhi lo mdlandla awuzange ulokhu wehla wenyuka ngenxa yezinguquko zeminikelo. Yize noma izinhlangano zingahlukana ngemibono uma kukhulunywa ngendaba yamalungelo, ngokujwayelekile zinabaxhasi abafanayo. Ngale kwalokhu, izinhlangano eziningi zivele zinabaxhasi abaningi, futhi laba baxhasi baseka izinhlelo ezithile hhayi inhlangano yonkana. Akuvamile ukuthi umxhasi oyedwa nje vo aphoqe inhlangano ukuthi ikhethe ukusebenzisa inqubomgomo ethize ezinhlelweni yazo.

Kunalokho, iphuzu engilibekayo wukuthi izinhlangano zikhetha amalungelo abantu ikakhulukazi ngenxa yeziqu zazo, ngigqamisa inhlanganisela yezizathu eziphathelene nemigomo kanye nokwakhiwa kwazo. Imibandela efanele ukuze izinhlangano zikhethe izinhlelo ezigxile ngamalungelo ibandakanya umholi oqotho ngamalungelo, futhi, lapho amalungelo engekho sematheni ezingxoxweni zikazwelonke, isiqu senhlangano esiqoqelene ndawonye esivumela ukuba amanye amalunga axhumane njalo. Ezindaweni lapho kungajwayelekile ukuxoxa ngamalungelo abantu, izinhlangano ziyasimama zizodwa ngenxa yabaholi abaqinile “abangompetha bamalungelo”. Abaholi abanjena bayakwazi ukukhuthaza isiko eligxile ngamalungelo ezinhlanganweni, emva kwalokho lezi zinhlangano zibese ziheha abantu abanawo, kumbe abazowufunda lo mqondo.

Ezinhlanganweni ebezigxile kakhulu ekusebenziseni amalungelo emsebenzini wazo, inkolelo eqinile ohlelweni lamalungelo kumuntu ngamunye kube yinto evamile. Ngokujwayelekile amalunga achaze ukusebenzisa kwabo amalungelo njengengxenye yenkolelo yabo – bebevamile ukunikeza izimpendulo ezilandayo, ezinentshisekelo ezichazayo ngokuthi amalungelo abantu angumnyombo wesithunzi nobuntu babo. Omunye wamalunga uchaze indlela asetshenziswa ngayo amalungelo yinhlangano yakhe kanje:

Ngale nhlonipho yamalungelo abantu awusoze wenza iphutha. Amalungelo abantu yisona sizathu sokuba khona kwethu, akunjalo? . . . La malungelo unawo noma ngabe athule kangakanani, kumele ahlonishwe. Abantu akumele bakunyathele njengomata wasemnyango. Isithunzi sakho yisona esizokwakha umhlaba. Phupha. . . ngoba isithunzi siyilungelo labantu. Siyingxenye yempilo yomuntu. Ngaphandle kwaso awucabange nje ukuphathiswa okodaka.

Kunokuba abe yisihloko noma ubungcweti, amalungelo abantu bawaqonde njengendlela ebanzi futhi ebuthanisayo yokubheka umhlaba egxile enkolweni eqinile – cishe engafaniswa nokholo lwabangakholwa.

Bengilindele ukuthi izinhlangano zizokhetha amalungelo ngaphezu kwamanye amatemu ngoba amalungelo abantu axhumene nokuvikelwa komthetho ngezindlela ezingafani nezentuthuko noma ezempilo yomphakathi. Ngicabange ukuthi mhlawumbe isinqumo sokusebenzisa amalungelo abantu besigxile ekulindeleni impendulo kahulumeni kanye nesibophezelo  somthetho. Empeleni, amalunga abone umthelela osemqoka kakhulu wamalungelo abantu njengokuthuthukiswa kwalabo bantu abadinga ukunakekelwa ngokwezempilo. Babone amalungelo njengohlelo oluthuthukisa labo abaphila nesifo seSandulela-Ngculazi ukuze baphoqe izinsiza abazikweletwayo, futhi nokufaka izicelo besendaweni enamandla nemfanelo, kunokuba kuyona enobuthakathaka nokuphelelwa yithemba.

Omunye wamalunga uchaze ukugudlulwa komqondo, akubone njengokuhambisana nokumela okusekelwa ngamalungelo, “njengokwakha emiqondweni yabantu” isu lokuthi “banelungelo lokuphoqa okungcono.” Amalunga enze izibonelo zalezi zimpoqo: “Uma uthi, ‘kuyilungelo lami lomthethosisekelo, dokotela. Angizuphuma kula magumbi ngaphandle kokulashwa,’ ngakho-ke udokotela uzoqinisekisa ukuthi uyakuthola ukwelashwa […] Abalenzi iphutha.”

Yize noma la magama achashunwe ngaphezulu evela eNingizimu Afrika, lapho amalungelo ezempilo eyingxenye yomthethosisekelo, amalunga azinze ezindaweni lapho imithetho ingahleliwe kanjena banikeze izimpendulo ezicishe zifane. Babona ulwimi lwamalungelo njengento eguqula abantu lubasusa ekubeni ngabamukeli bezempilo abathulile babe ngabamukeli abanomdlandla abaxoxisanayo ngendaba yezempilo ngokwabo, futhi njengezakhamuzi ezixoxisanayo eziphoqa izinsiza kuhulumeni ngokusemthethweni.

Ucwaningo lubonisa izimpawu zokuthi “amalungelo abantu” angaba nembuyiselo yemithelela esemqoka ezindaweni lapho ongqondongqondo bamalungelo abantu bengavamile ukubheka khona. Ngale kwezenzo zikahulumeni kanye nezindawo ezivelele ezifana neNhlangano Yezizwe nezinkantolo zesizwe, abantu basebenzisa amalungelo abantu ezimpilweni zabo zansukuzonke ngezindlela ezinomthelela onqala ezimpilweni zabo. Ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi ukumela okugxile ngamalungelo kunomthelela oyikhethelo ngoba kuguqula imibono yabantu ngamandla uma kuqhathaniswa nohulumeni okunye kunikeza abantu igunya ukuthi baphoqe izinsiza ezibafanele besendaweni enamandla. Kubikwa ukuthi labo abanolwazi ngokumela okugxile ngamalungelo abantu banamathuba andile ukuthi bayofuna izinsiza zezempilo, ukuthi baziswe ngamalungelo abo, ukuthi babuze abezempilo imibuzo, futhi babe nokuphenya ngokubambezeleka nokunqatshelwa kwezinsiza.

Le miphumela ingaba nemithelela kwezempilo yomphakathi, njengezindlela ekubikwa ukuthi ukuziphatha kushintshwa ngamalungelo abantu ngumqondo ofanayo othi ukumela okugxile ngamalungelo abantu kungaba nemithelela emihle kwezempilo kepha yimithelela enganakiwe.


UKristi Heather Kenyon unguSolwazi eGlobal College ezinze eNyuvesi yaseWinnipeg, ungumcwaningi (phecelezi i-research fellow) eCentre for the Study of Security and Development futhi uyiCIFAR-AZIRELI Scholar.


 

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