Kago kgotsa kgatako: Ditshwanelo tsa setho mo Borwa jwa Aferika

Phitlhelelo ya ditshwanelo tsa setho tse di letleletsweng go ya ka ditumalano tsa UN e dirwa go simolola fa molaong, kgotsa kwa tlase kwa moding? Ditso le ngwao tsa lefatshe lengwe le lengwe ke tsone di ka nnang masupatsela.


By: Kristi Heather Kenyon
November 16, 2017

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Ditshwanelo tsa setho gantsi di emelwa ke setlhopha sa mafatshefatshe se se sa tshikinyegeng, se se nang le kitso ya botheginiki e e kwa godimo, se se tsayang gore se aname le lefatshe lotlhe mme nnete ele gore se tlhotlheletswa ke batho bangwe ba maemo a a kwa godimo. Mme kana, ditshwanelo tsa setho di laolwa ke tse di diragaletseng motho mo mafelong mangwe, ka dinako dingwe, ka mabaka le ka ntlheng ya dingwao dingwe. Go leka go amanya dikgang tse pedi tse go ikaegile thata ka kutlwelo ya “kwelo tlase” mo ditumalanong tse di kwadilweng ka puo ya bokolone go tswa kwa Bokoneng jwa lefatshe ka bophara. Tsamaiso e, e akanyetsa gore kitso e e teng mo mafelong mangwe mme, ga e yo mo go amangwe, le gore e tlhotlheletswa ke thuto ya seka molao, bodiredi jwa sepolotiki eseng maitemogelo a botshelo, le gore kitso ya go nna jalo e gogela ntlheng ele nngwe. Go ya go diragala eng fa re ka fetola tsamaiso e? Tsamaiso ya ditshwanelo tsa setho lefatshe ka bophara e ka fetoga jang fa re ka tswa mo go “weleng tlase” mme re “age go ya kwa godimo”?

Kwa ntle le go lebelela UN, patlisiso yame e botsa jaana: aa balwela ditshwanelo ba Botswana le ba Aferika Borwa ba tlhaloganya ditshwanelo tsa setho ka mokgwa o o sirang kgotsa o tswa mo tseleng e e dirisiwang ke ditlhopha tsa ditshwanelo tsa setho tsa bodichabachaba? Fela jaaka go tlhalosiwa ke Nat Kendall-Taylor, re tlhoka go nna le “metlhale ya go lebelela ka fa batho ba tlhaloganyang dikgang tsa ditshwanelo tsa setho” e e tseneletseng, e bile ele botoka, mme fela, jaaka go tlhalosiwa ke Carla Sutherland le ba bangwe, re tlhaelelwa ke kitso ka “metlhale e ya go tlhaloganya” ka tsela ya Seaferika. Botswana le Aferika Borwa go botlhokwa gore di sekasekwe, ka gore ditlhopha dingwe tsa ngwao le dipuo di fitlhelwa mo mafatsheng ao ka bobedi le fa ntswa ditso le dipolotiki tsa mafatshe a di farologana. Go batlisisa gore dirotloetsi ka go farologana di amile jang ka fa ditshwanelo tsa setho di tlhaloganngwang ka teng, ke remeletse thata mo makgotleng a twelo ditshwanelo a a reng a itebagantse le ditshwanelo tsa setho, ka gore makgotla a, a na le nako e ntshi a ntse a akanya e bile a buelela ditshwanelo tsa setho go ya ka fa seemo se ntseng ka teng fa a direlang teng. Go dira tekanyetso ya gore ditshwanelo tsa setho di dira jang, mo makgotleng a le matlhano a a direlang mo tikologong e e rileng, ke ne ka dira dipotsolotso tse 5-10 mo badiring, tse di neng di akaretsa dipotso tse di tlhokang ditlhaloso, kamano mafoko le tiriso ya dinepe go lopa dikarabo. Tse di fitlheletsweng go tsweng mo mekgatong ya maemo a a kwa godimo a a itebagantseng le go buelela ditshwanelo tsa setho se tlhalosiwa fa tlase. Mekgato e ke ,Botswana Network on Ethics, Law and HIV/AIDS (BONELA) and SECTION27, o o beditsweng ka lefapha la ditshwanelo tsa botsogo le thuto la molaomotheo wa Aferika Borwa.   

Fa mafatshefatshe a lebaganya ditshwanelo tsa setho le melao le ditumalano, batsayakarolo ba BONELA mo potsolotsong e le eseng go bua sepe ka molao wa lefatshe, mme ba buile ka fa ditshwanelo tsa setho di leng teng ka ntlheng ya gore “o motho”—ka mafoko a mangwe ke gore, se o leng sone eseng dilo tse o nang le tsone. Batsayakarolo ba BONELA ba bona ditshwanelo tsa setho ele selo se se sa feleng—selo se ntseng sele teng, e bile se tla nna fela sele teng. Go na le go lebelela ditumalano tsa mafatshefatshe, batsayakarolo ba supile fa modi wa ditshwanelo tsa setho mo Botswana o le mo ditsong tsa lefatshe, mme gantsi se se fitlhelwa mo letshegong la ngwao ya Setswana la botho, mme se se bo se raya gore kgang ya gore ditshwanelo tsa setho di tswa kwa ntle ga e na boammaaruri. Tiragatso le yone go tlhalositswe gore e mo sethong, mme e bile ga se maikarabelo a makgotla go latedisa. Mongwe wa batsayakarolo o e beile jaana ka boripana, “Ke akanya gore—rona batho jaaka nna le sechaba—ke rona batlhomamisi ba tiragatso ya ditshwanelo tsa setho.”

 

Kristi H. Kenyon (All rights reserved)

Reflecting the historical and contemporary inequalities in South Africa, for SECTION27 respondents, rights equal equality.


Khatlhanong  le se, fa re lebelela seemo sa sepolotiki sa Aferika Borwa, batsayakarolo ba SECTION27 bone ba tlhalogantse ditshwanelo tota ele “dilo tse o ka di lopang mo pusong”, e bile go le gantsi, ba ntsha makgotla a mo gae, goromente, melao, le molao motheo wa Aferika Borwa o o rotloeditsweng thata ke twelo ditshwanelo morago ga puso ya tlhaolele. Mme fela, dikgaoganyo tse di ne di bonwa ele dilo tse di fetogang ese gore ke tsa se nnela ruri. Batsayakarolo ba SECTION27 gantsi ba ne ba bua ka seabe sa batho ba lefatshe la Aferika Borwa fa ba  tlhalosa bokao jwa ditshwanelo. Ba ne ba bona Molaomotheo ele selo se se ka tlhomamisiwang: “Fela jaaka buka e bana ba takang mo go yone, e go neela meralo e o tshwanetseng go taka mo go yone. Gore aa o taka tikologo yotlhe ka moralo le bokao, go laolwa ke gore o lebelela moralo jang le gore o lope gore go nne le bokao jo bo fiwang moralo oo.”

Batsayakarolo go tswa kwa SECTION27 ne ba bona ditshwanelo ele puisanyo e batho ba lefatshe leo ba ka e bile ba tshwanelwa ke go tsaya karolo mo go yone. Go bontsha gore sechaba se ga se lekalekane, batsayakarolo ba bane ba tlhaloganya tsuololo ya ditshwanelo ele maitemogelo a go sa nneng teng ga tekatekanyo, mo bangweng, kgotsa go ya ka maitemogelo a nako e e fetileng. Badiri ba SECTION27 le bone ka nako tse dintsi ba ne ba amanya ditshwanelo tsa setho le nako, mme gantsi ba bua ka selo se se diragetseng mo nakong e e fetileng e e neng e sa tlotle ditshwanelo le nako ya mo isagong, e go akanyetswang gore e tlotla ditshwanelo tsa setho. Pharologanyo ya bone le batsayakarolo ba BONELA, ke gore ditshwanelo ne ese gantsi di tlhalosiwa ka ngwao; se bogolo seng se supega ke tshwanelo ya semolao, e e neng e buiwa ke bontsi jwa sechaba, le tshwanelo ya ditso mabapi le ikgaratlhelo ka nako ya puso ya tlhaolele. 

Sakiko Fukuda-Parr o kwadile gore ditshwanelo tsa setho di sa ntse di na le bokao mo lefatsheng la Borwa. Dipatlisiso tsame di akantsha gore bokao jo bo farologana fela thata le thulaganyo ya ditshwanelo tsa setho ya lefatshe lotlhe. Thulaganyo ya lefatshe lotlhe e remeletse mo kanamong lefatshe ka bophara, ditlhopha tse di kwa tlase di ganeletse mo bokaong jwa mafelo mangwe le mo ditiragalo dingwe. Go farologana le tshiamelo ya ngwao, e e bonang ngwao le tikologo ele dikgoreletsi tsa ditshwanelo tsa setho, mekgatlo e, e dirisa ditikologo tsa yone go tlhaloganya le go tlhalosa ditshwanelo tsa setho. Kwa Botswana, tshwanelo e golagantswe le ngwao, mme mo tikologong e ya sechaba e e dumalanweng, BONELA e tlhaloganya gore go itumelela ditshwanelo tsa setho ke go bo o le bontlha jwa sechaba se. Kwa Aferika Borwa, ikgaratlhelo kgatlhanong le puso ya tlhaolele e neela bokao mo tshwanelong ya molao wa mo gae le go tsaya karolo mo go se se tumileng. Tebelelo ya ditso le tlhokego ya tekatekanyo gareng ga batho gompieno mo Aferika Borwa, go ya ka batsayakarolo ba SECTION27, e supa gore ditshwanelo di lekana le tekatekano.

Fa ele gore jaaka Stephen Hopgood a bua, re le thulaganyo ya lefatshe ka bophara, re itemogela phelo ya “Ditshwanelo tsa Setho”, potso ke gore, aa go sa lebe lefatshe lotlhe ka bophara go re thusa ka sengwe se se botoka? Le fa dikarabo di farologana, dipatlisiso tse pedi tse di supa bokgoni le ikemisetso diemo ya ditshwanelo tsa setho le batho ba ba di emetseng ka dinao go di buelela. Mo nngwe le nngweng ya dipatlisiso tse pedi tse, batsayakarolo mo patlisisong ba tlhaloganya ditshwanelo tsa setho go ya ka seemo le tikologo e ba leng mo go yone e bile ba amanya ditshwanelo le mofuta mongwe wa tshwanelo o o tsamaisanang e bile o tsamaisana le maikutlo a batho mo lefatsheng la bone.

“Go agela” go fitlhelela dikeletso tsa lefatshe ka bophara go tsweng mo dikarolong tse di dumalanwang go ka akaretsa:

  • Tiriso ya mafoko a ngwao, ditiragalo tsa ditso, le dikai tse di mo tikologong go tlhalosa ditshwanelo tsa setho, bokao le tshwanelo ya tsone.
  • Go akaretsa bontsi jwa batsayakarolo ka go farologana mo dithulaganyong tsotlhe tsa tlhamo, tlhotoetso le tlhomamiso tiragatso ya ditumalano le maiteko a ditshwanelo tsa setho (baeteledipele ba setso, ba ditumelo, benggae).
  • Kanamiso le phoduso ya makgotla a mafatshefatshe go akaretsa bontsi jwa bokopano le mafelo a themelelo go tswa kwa mafelong a a tshwereng dithata a a kwa Bokone jwa lefatshe lotlhe.
  • Go gatelela le go lemoga boleng jwa dipuisano tse di tsweletsweng le badiragatsi ba mo gae le go tlhama mananeo mo thulaganyong ya UN a a tsamaisang ditirisano dikgolo le tse di tswelelelang pele.

Dikakantsho tsa ntlha tse, di akaretsa phudugo go tswa mo megopolong e e saleng e ikadile ya ka fa ditshwanelo tsa setho di tshwanetseng go fitlhelelwa ka teng. Di lopa gore go lemogiwe gore ditshwanelo tsa setho di a tshela, e bile di a fetoga go nale le gore di lebelelwe ele dilo tse di tshwanang lefatshe lotlhe ka bophara. Go lwela le go swela thulaganyo e eseng monate e, e bile e sa tlhaloganyesege, go kgona go kgoba marapo, mme gape go kgona go fa lenaneo la ditshwanelo tsa setho la mafatshefatshe maatla a go ka simolola fela kwa moding ko gantsi go itlhokomolositsweng, mme ele gone kwa go tsipameng.


Kristi Heather Kenyon ke mothusa porofesa kwa Unibesiting ya Winnipeg’s Global College, mmatlisisi kwa Centre for the Study of Security and Development, e bile gape ke Moithuti wa CIFAR-Azrieli Global.


 

Go neela tiriso ya puo ya ditshwanelo dithata ke gone go bakang kgolo ya tiriso ya puo e mo go bueleleng HIV

BY: Kristi Heather Kenyon
English | Zulu

 

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