Ukuqhathanisa ukwakha kusaka phansi nokuconsisela kusuka phezulu: amalungelo abantu e-Afrika eseNingizimu

Engabe sizuza amalungelo abantu ngokufeza izivumelwano eziboshezelwe yiNhlangano yeZizwe ezingeni lezishayamthetho kumbe emazingeni aphansi? Umlando kanye namasiko ezweni ngalinye kungaba ngumhlahlandlela.


By: Kristi Heather Kenyon
November 16, 2017

Available in:
English | Español | Setswana


Amalungelo abantu avamise ukukhungathwa yimiqulu eqinile, enobuchwepheshe basemazweni  eheha ngokuthi yengamele uwonke wonke kepha eqinisweni ithakwe ngonxiwankulu. Eqinisweni, amalungelo abantu azinze ezimpilweni zabantu ezigxila ezindaweni, ezikhathini, ezimeni ezithize kanye nasemasikweni athize. Imizamo yokuxhumanisa le mihlaba emibili ithembele kakhulu empumeleni "yokufafazeka" kwezivumelwano ezibhalwe ngokwedlulele ngezilimi zencindezelo eziqhamuka emazweni aseNyakatho. Lolu hlelo luthatha sengathi ubuchwepheshe bugxile ezindaweni ezithize kuphela bese kwezinye abukho, lokhu kungumthelela wendlela efundiswa ngayo izifundo zomthetho kanye nezinhlelo zepolitiki ukudlula isimo sempilo, futhi luhambela nxanye kuphela. Engabe kwenzakalani uma singaguqula ukwenza? Lungaguquka kanjani uhlelo lamalungelo abantu uma singasuka "ekufafazekeni" siye "ekwakheni"?

Kunokuthembela eNhlanganweni yeZizwe, ucwaningo lwami lubuza ukuthi: engabe izishoshovu zaseBotswana nezaseNingizimu Afrika ziqonda amalungelo abantu ngendlela efana kumbe ehlukana nenqubomgomo yawo yamazwe ngamazwe? Njengokubeka kuka Nat Kendall-Taylor, sidinga “izindlela ezingcono nezijulile zokuqonda ukuthi abantu bacabanga kanjani ngezimo ezithinta amalungelo” futhi, njengokubona kukaCarla Sutherland kanye nabanye, ulwazi lwethu “ngalezi zindlela zokuqonda” aluphelele uma sibheka izimo zempilo yase-Afrika. IBotswana kanye neNingizimu Afrika yizindawo eziqavile zokuhlolisiswa, njengoba la mazwe abelana ngezizwe kanye nezilimi yize noma ehlukile kakhulu ngokomlando nezombusazwe. Ukuze ngihlole ukuthi la mathonya ahlukene abe namuphi umthelela ekuqondisisweni kwamalungelo abantu ngigxile ezinhlanganweni zezishoshovu ezizichaza njengezinhlangano ezengamele amalungelo abantu, ngoba yizona esezichithe isikhathi eside zicabanga futhi zixoxisana ngamalungelo abantu emphakathini yazo. Ukuze ngikale ukuthi amalungelo abantu asebenza kanjani emazingeni aphansi, kuzona zonhlanu izinhlangano ezigxile emiphakathini, ngixoxisane nabantu abangu-5 kuya kwabangu-10, izingxoxo zethu ziqukathe imibuzo evulekile, ukuxhunyaniswa kwamagama kanye nokuhlongoza ngezithombe. Engxoxweni engezansi kunemiphumela esuka ezinhlanganweni ezimbili ezimele amalungelo abantu ezisezingeni eliphezulu – iBotswana Network on Ethics, Law and HIV/AIDS (iBonela) kanye neSection 27, eqanjwe ngesigaba samalungelo ezempilo nezemfundo kuMthethosisekelo waseNingizimu Afrika.

Yize noma umbuso wamazwe ngamazwe ufaka amalungelo abantu emithethweni nasezivumelwaneni, amalunga eBONELA ayithinta kancane indaba yomthetho wesizwe, kunalokho axoxa ngamalungelo abantu njengengxenye esemqoka “yokuba ngumuntu” – ngamanye amazwi, yilokhu oyikho hhayi lokhu onakho. Amalunga eBONELA athatha amalungelo abantu njengento engabanjiwe yisikhathi – yinto eyayikhona kusukela endulo futhi eyohlala ikhona ingunaphakade. Kunokuba athembele kwinqubomgomo yamazwe ngamazwe, amalunga athatha izimpande zamalungelo abantu njengento egxile ezimfundisweni zamasiko aseBotswana, bekuyinto evamile ukuthi la malunga afingqe zonke lezi zimfundiso ngomqondo owodwa wobuntu, ngokwenza kanjena aphikisa inkolelo yokuthi amalungelo abantu yinto eqhamuka ngaphandle. Amalungelo bawathatha njengento egxile emphakathini futhi oyithokozela ngokuba yingxenye yomphakathi nokwamukelana emphakathini. Ukuvikela nakho bakuchaze njengento ezinze ezandleni zabantu hhayi ezikhungwini. Omunye wamalunga ubeka kanje, “Ngicabanga ukuthi okusempeleni thina – ngokwethu umuntu ngamunye kanye nemiphakathi – yithi empeleni esingabavikeli bamalungelo abantu.”

Kristi H. Kenyon (All rights reserved)

Reflecting the historical and contemporary inequalities in South Africa, for SECTION27 respondents, rights equal equality.


Ngokuqhathanisa, uma sicabangisisa isimo sezombusazwe eNingizimu Afrika, amalunga eSection 27 abona amalungelo njengezinto ikakhulukazi “ongazifakela isicelo kuhulumeni”, avamise ukuphatha indaba yezinkantolo, kahulumeni, yemithetho, ikakhulukazi noMthethosisekelo waseNingizimu Afrika ogqugquzelwe yizishoshovu zentando yabantu. Kepha loku kuhlela kwemicabango kubonakale sengathi kujiyile futhi kubandakanya abantu kunokuba kumi endaweni eyodwa. Amalunga eSection 27 akhulume kaningi ngendima yabantu baseNingizimu Afrika yokunika amalungelo ukubaluleka. Babona uMthethosisekelo njengohlaka olukhuthaza ukuxoxisana: “Njengencwadi yezingane yokugcwalisa imibala, ikunikeza isithombe esingenayo imibala. Ukuthi wena uyasigcwalisa lesi sithombe ngemibala nokubaluleka kwaso kuwe kuncike ekutheni ugxile kangakanani kuso nokuthi uyaphoqa yini ukuthi kube nencazelo enikelwa kuso.”

Amalunga eSection 27 athatha amalungelo njengengxoxo lapho izakhamuzi zikwazi futhi zifanele ukubandakanya. Ekuzindleni zawo ngemiphakathi engalingani, la malunga aqonda ukuhlukunyezwa kwamalungelo njengesimo sokungalingani uma siziqhathanisa mhlawumbe nabanye kumbe nezimpilo zethu zakudala. Abasebenzi beSection 27 bebephinelela begxilisa amalungelo enkathini, obekuvamile wukuthi njalo bebekhuluma ngenkathi emlandweni lapho ebengahlonishwa amalungelo, kanye nenkathi ezayo lapho wonke amalungelo ezohlonishwa khona. Lokho akufani nezimpendulo zamalunga eBONELA, amalungelo abazange bawachaze ngamagama axhumene namasiko; kunalokho, besiqavile isinxuso sokubaluleka ngokusemthethweni ebantwini abahlukahlukene, kanye nokubaluleka komlando ophathelene nempi yomzabalazo emelene nobandlululo.

USakiko Fukuda-Parr ubhale ukuthi amalungelo abantu asabalulekile namanje emazweni aseNingizimu. Ucwaningo lwami lubonisa ukuthi le ncazelo ihlukile ngezindlela ezisemqoka kunaleyo yomqulu wamalungelo abantu yamazwe ngamazwe. Ngenkathi umqulu wamalungelo wamazwe ngamazwe uqhakambisa amalungelo kawonkewonke, izinhlangano ezisebenza emazingeni aphansi zithola incazelo yazo ezimweni nasemasikweni athize. Lokhu kuhlukile-ke kuneCultural Relativism, yona ithatha amasiko kanye nezimo ezahlukene njengezithiyo zamalungelo abantu, lezi zinhlangano ezisemazingeni aphansi zisebenzisa amasiko azo ukucubungula achaze amalungelo abantu. EBotswana aqhakanjiswa wukuthi aqukethwe ngamasiko, kanti futhi kulesi simo esibandakanya umphakathi jikelele kube nokuvunyelwana iBONELA ithatha ukuthokozela kwamalungelo abantu njengokuba yingxenye yomphakathi. ENingizimu Afrika incazelo yomzabalazo omelene nobandlululo igxile ekuqhakambiseni imithetho yesizwe kanye nokubandakanywa kweningi. Ekuzindleni ngokungalingani emlandweni kanye nasenkathini yamanje, amalunga eSection 27 athatha amalungelo njengokulingana.

Uma kunjengokusho kukaStephen Hopgood, sibungaza amaphethelo ezinkathi “zamalungelo abantu” njengomqulu wamazwe ngamazwe, engabe ukufulathela amazwe omhlaba kuzosinikeza amasu aphusile? Yize ke noma kube nezimpendulo ezahlukene, lezi zibonelo ezimbili zibonisa isibindi kanye nokubumbeka kalula kwamalungelo abantu emazingeni aphansi kanye nabantu abawalwelayo. Kuzona zombili lezi zibonelo, amalunga awaqonda amalungelo abantu emongweni wezimpilo zabo bese axhumanise leyo ncazelo nendlela ethize yokuqhakanjiswa kwamalungelo efanelene namazwe abaphila kuwo.

“Ukwakha” into ephatheka ezingeni lomhlaba kungadinga lezi zithako ezilandelayo:

  • Ukusetshenziswa kwamagama esintu, izehlakalo zasemlandweni, kanye nezindlela zokucabanga ezidlinze emongweni wendawo ukuze kwazeke ukuqondisisa amalungelo abantu kanye nezindlela zokuwaqhakambisa.
  • Ukuxoxisana nabantu abaningi abahlukahlukene kuzona zonke izigaba zokuhlanganisa, ukuqhakambisa nokuvikela kwezivumelwano nezinhlelo zamalungelo abantu (abaholi bendabuko, abaholi bezenkolo, amalunga omphakathi).
  • Ukuhlakaza kanye nokusatshalaliswa kabusha kwezikhungo ezengamele amalungelo abantu emazingeni omhlaba ukuze kwande izinga lemihlangano kanye namahhovisi ezindaweni ezingaphandle kwezigodlo zamazwe aseNyakatho.
  • Ukugcizelela kanye nokukhuthaza ukuqhutshekwa kwezingxoxo nokusebenzisana namalunga omphakathi futhi nokwakhiwa ngamabomu kwezigungu ngaphakathi kwezinhlelo zeNhlangano yeZizwe ezizokwazi ukugqugquzela inhloso yazo esemqoka, izingxoxo eziqhubekayo futhi ezichasiselayo.

Lezi ziphakamiso zokuqala zibandakanya ukwehlukaniswa okuqavile kwezindlela zokucabanga esezinkonkosheleni zokuthi afezwa kanjani amalungelo abantu. Ziphoqa ukuthi amalungelo abantu athathwe njengento ephilayo futhi eguqula izimpilo kunokuthi kube yinto engumqulu wezinhlelo ezilawula impilo kawonkewonke. Ukulandela le ndlela yokwenza enzima futhi engacacile ingathukuthelisa, kepha ingavuselela izinhlelo zamalungelo abantu ezingeni lomhlaba kusukela emazingeni aphansi wona lawa agcwele impilo kepha ahlale evalelwe ngaphandle.


UKristi Heather Kenyon unguSolwazi eGlobal College ezinze eNyuvesi yaseWinnipeg, ungumcwaningi (phecelezi i-research fellow) eCentre for the Study of Security and Development futhi uyiCIFAR-AZIRELI Scholar.


 

Ulimi oluqhakambisayo lwamalungelo luyisisekelo esiya ngokwanda ekumelaneni nesifo seSandulela-Ngculazi.

BY: Kristi Heather Kenyon
English | Setswana

 

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